A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential,then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, povide a maximum of keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Besparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text,and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of foot notes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Referen ce list.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply caption separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and in dicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article .
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "unpublished results" or "Personal communication". Cita tion of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication and a copy of the title page of the relevant article must be submitted.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information,if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words "this issue" are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
References on the reference list must be ordered alphabetically. In the text, refer to them using square brackets.